Recently, certain particles have been recognized for their exceptional use as interjections outside the regular syntax of the clause.

Not only do these particles stand alone, but they typically stand alone as single-word utterances (also known as “holophrases”) without necessarily combining with any other elements. Some particles are purely expressive or interactive interjections and are not used otherwise in clausal syntax (1), while others can be used as both interjections (2a) and as modifiers within clauses (2b).

(1)    āwiyā!            “Ouch!”

(2) a)    tānisi!      “Hello, Greetings, How are you?”

  b)    tānisi ē-isiyihkāsoyan?   “What is your name? (literally: “How are you called?”)